In software engineering, software modularity and reusability are considered best practices. Unfortunately, in the civic software world, these principles are often ignored, because governments and public bodies fail to use open standards and interfaces for their data.
When governments and other public bodies adopt open standards, everyone wins. Consider, for example, the Open311 standard. When a city implements an Open311 endpoint, its citizens suddenly have the option of using any software which has been developed to support the Open311 standard. There’s no need for civic hackers in Chicago to develop one iPhone app, only for another group of civic hackers in New York to implement a substantially similar app, just because the two cities use different APIs.
For those developers, the use of open standards acts as a force multiplier: they don’t have to know anything about the cities where their apps are being used, because they all adhere to the same standards. Civic software is, for the most part, the domain of non-profits and individuals working on their own time. Development resources are far from unlimited, and, simply put, we have neither the time nor money to spend on what might be characterized as niche applications which only have use in a limited geographic area, or with one government’s proprietary API.
Closer to home, I’ve watched over the past few years as developers have expended needless effort building transit apps for the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area, simply to accommodate local transit authorities’ refusal to publish clean, high-quality data in standard formats.
Arlington County’s Mobility Lab Transit Tech initiative has developed two applications which rely on data from transit authorities. One is a package for driving real-time transit signs, and the other is Transit Near Me, a mobile webapp for mapping transit options.
I want to emphasize that I don’t mean to minimize the work of the Mobility Lab developers—in the end, they did what they needed to in order to be able to ship a working product, given the data they had access to.
Having said that, though, these applications are not all that different from similar transit apps which have already been built. The Mobility Lab’s real-time sign, for example, is (in terms of basic design concepts) not all that different from the OneBusAway sign mode.
Granted, the Mobility Lab’s real-time sign looks more polished, and includes support for transit modes like bike sharing, but imagine if instead of building a new piece of software from the ground up, the Mobility Lab developers had worked to polish the OneBusAway sign mode and add support for other transit modes?
Had they done so, every city which uses OneBusAway would have been able to benefit immediately from the improvements.
But, there’s a problem. OneBusAway consumes real-time transit information in the GTFS-realtime and SIRI VM formats. Out of the agencies in the region, only Montgomery County Ride On and VRE provide GTFS-realtime data. The other agencies which provide real-time data use proprietary formats which are incompatible with GTFS-realtime. Without detouring too deeply into technical territory, WMATA’s proprietary API actually provides all of the information that would be necessary to construct a GTFS-realtime feed for Metrobus, were it not for the fact that the API uses route, stop, and trip identifiers which are completely different from those in the static GTFS schedule.
The same goes for Transit Near Me; it is, in essence, a mobile version of the OpenTripPlanner system map. Cities around the world have adopted OpenTripPlanner; wouldn’t they also benefit from an interactive system map optimized for mobile devices?
OpenTripPlanner is designed to consume clean, well-constructed GTFS feeds, while instead Transit Near Me must include various work-arounds for idiosyncrasies in WMATA’s data: bad shapes which must be replaced with data from shapefiles, stop IDs which are only available in the API and not the GTFS feed, etc.
I should emphasize again that this isn’t just about the Mobility Lab; their work happens to highlight the problem particularly well, but they’re not the only developers to get caught up in this maelstrom:
— Kyle Hill (@kylehill) November 5, 2012
What’s the solution? Civic hackers need to stand together with each other, and stand up for good software engineering principles. I doubt that any one developer alone will be able to convince WMATA to get their data in order (goodness knows I’ve tried). But if we stand together and recognize that reinventing the wheel over and over again is not a productive use of our time, we may be able to convince data providers to embrace open standards. When we do, it will have benefits not just locally, but for people around the world who benefit from the work of civic hackers.